韓国語初心者の文法フレーズ【丁寧な表現:~です】

韓国語初心者の文法フレーズ【丁寧な表現:~です】

안녕하세요.

Sunhyesongハングルルーム講師の송순헤(ソン・スネ)です。

今回は韓国語初心者の文法フレーズ【丁寧な表現:~です】について解説したいと思います。

まず韓国語の文章の仕組みについて見てみましょう。

◎韓国語の語順について

韓国語の語順は日本語にとても似ていてますよ。

 

こちらの文章で単純に「私は行きます」という意味を表して書いていますが、他にも下記のように名詞や副詞をプラスしながらより具体的な表現にしていくことも可能です。

 저는 회사에 갑니다. (主語+場所名詞+助詞+述語)

 翻訳:私は会社に行きます。

 저는  아침일찍 회사에 갑니다.(主語+名詞+副詞+場所名詞+助詞+述語)

翻訳:私は朝早く会社に行きます。

※このように韓国語は日本語と似たような文法だという頃がわかりましたよね?

◎韓国語の「~です」について

丁寧な韓国語で「~です」と言いたい時にいくつか言い方があります。

1.「입니다/입니까?」

少しかしこまった言い方だと「입니다」を使います。実際の発音では「임니다」となります。

例文>저는 정수진입니다.(私はチョン・スジンです。)

저는 회사원입니다.(私は会社員です。)

「입니다」の疑問形は「입니까?」となります。実際の発音は「임니까?」となりますよ。

例文>몇시입니까?(何時ですか?)

2.「예요/이에요」

より砕けた柔らかい表現としては、「예요/이에요」がありますよ。

単語が母音で終わる時(パッチムがない時)は「예요」を使い、単語が子音で終わる時(パッチムがある時)は「이에요」を使います。

例文>1.名詞にパッチムがない文章

저는 주부예요.(私は主婦です。)

저는 나카노 다쓰야예요.(私は中野達也です。)

2.名詞にパッチムがある文章

아버지는 학교선냉님이에요.(父は学校の先生です。)

제 취미는 수영이에요.(私の趣味は水泳です。)

※입니다体は一般的によく使われ、会社や様々な場合に使って頂けます。예요/이에요の方が柔らかい言い方なので、馴染みのある方と会話したり、打ち解けた場面で使ってみるなど使い分けても良いかもしれませんね。

どちらの言い方も丁寧な表現ですので、是非使ってみましょう。

練習問題

<基本練習1>次の文章を「입니다」を使って翻訳して韓国語に直して見ましょう。

私は調理師です。⇒저는 요리사입니다.

ここはソウルです。⇒여기는 서울입니다.

 

<基本練習2>次の文章を「예요/이에요」を使って翻訳して韓国語に直して見ましょう。

これはケーキです。⇒이것은 케이크예요.

明日は火曜日です。⇒내일은 화요일이에요.

記事はいかがでしたでしょうか?韓国語初心者の文法フレーズをマスターして、あなたも韓国語を楽しむ生活をしてみましょう。

今までドラマなどで聞いていたフレーズも少しずつ理解できるといいですね。

※新大久保学院 ワンポイントレッスン:初級1の動画を確認するとより理解が深まりますので、参考にご覧くださいませ。

新大久保学院 ワンポイントレッスン:初級1입니다/입니까

新大久保学院 ワンポイントレッスン:初級1예요/이에요

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